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This good sized chunk of obsidian is from Glass Buttes in eastern Oregon.  The chips laying
on top were removed by use of a copper billet (6" x 3/4" diameter cold-rolled copper rod, with
a rounded end) which is struck against the edge of a stone spall like a baton, striking the tip
against a prepared edge.  This breaks off pieces such as those chips shown here.  These are all
fairly small, no more than two inches long; since the arrowheads in this project are between
5/8" and 1-1/2" long, at the most.  
For longer arrowheads we use bigger chips or large blades removed by percussion, striking
with a hammer-like blow using a hammer stone, or a with baton-like billet strike at the edge
or corner of the large chunk or with an antler tine punch, struck against the prepared edge
of a stone core.
The basic tools of pressure flaking included antler tine flaking tools, which were
commonly used in cultures which had not yet learned the use of metal.  Many flint
knappers today make an effort to learn and practice the use of the aboriginal tool
kit, with deer or moose antler or bone or even wood percussion billets, hammer
stones of quartzite, sandstone or other materials, and deer and moose antler tines
for pressure flaking, plus other bone or wood tools for notching and detail work
on flint, jasper and obsidian tools.
And many knappers today use copper-tipped pressure flaking tools, such as these
robust handles which use set screws to hold the different size copper tips in place.  
They come in different sizes, for high pressure flaking and delicate detailed finish
work like notching and making serrations along the blade edge of the arrowhead.
Arrowheads start as chips off the old block ... obsidian chips in this case.
Hand-held pressure flaking tools ... different sizes of copper tips.  And a well-used edge abrading block of carborundum.
Copyright 2009, all rights reserved.
F. Scott Crawford
Carrollton, Texas
Welcome to  At this new web site we will explore the creation of stone arrowheads.
Our initial focus is on an intriguing arrowhead style made in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.  It is
called the Gunther point.  This arrowhead style is famous for its dramatic, sweeping, wing-like, barbed design.  
Some varieties also feature wicked looking serrated edges.  In either variation, this point is both delicate and
deadly.  It is a favorite of collectors of authentic arrowheads, and it is a favorite and challenging style to work
on for modern "flint knappers".  Our objective is to review and show an interpretation of how the Gunther
style arrowheads could have been made in the past and how you can make this arrowhead today.
An obsidian Humboldt or Dalton lance point -- 2008 A.D. -- from
Click on this image for a 30-second video
presentation of links to our flint knapping
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animated downloads from this website,